Tobacco use and lung cancer
Smoking cigarettes is the biggest risk factor for developing lung cancer. The best way to decrease your risk is not to smoke. If you do smoke, quit. How does the use of other types of tobacco products have on lung cancer risk? This section allows you to explore these topics more in-depth.
Learn about tobacco use and lung cancer
How tobacco smoke causes disease:The biology and behavioral basis for smoking-attributable disease (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services)
The link between cigarettes and lung cancer
Proctor, Robert N. 2012. The history of the discovery of the cigarette - lung cancer link: Evidentiary traditions, corporate denial, global toll. Tobacco Control 12;21:87-91.
Cigars and pipes and lung cancer
Cigar smoking and cancer (National Cancer Institute)
Cigars: Health effects and trends (National Cancer Institute)
Henley et al. 2004. Association Between Exclusive Pipe Smoking and Mortality From Cancer and Other Diseases. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 96:11
Marijuana and lung cancer
Aldington et al. 2008. Cannabis use and lung cancer: A case-controlled study. European Respiratory Journal 31(2):280-86.
Mehra et al. 2006. The association between marijuana smoking and lung cancer: A systematic review. Archives of Int Medicine 166(13):1359-67.
Waterpipe (hookah) use and lung cancer
Akl et al. 2010. The effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking on health outcomes. International Journal of Epidemiology 39(3):834-57.
Waterpipe tobacco smoking: Health effects, research needs and recommended actions by regulators (World Health Organization)